How to use the ROMAN Function in Excel

In this article, we will learn about how to use the ROMAN function in Excel.

ROMAN function is a mathematical conversion operator used to convert the arabic numeral representation to ROMAN numeral as text. ROMAN numerals to arabic are shown below.

1 I
5 V
10 X
50 L
100 C
500 D
1000 M

The ROMAN function converts Arabic numeral to roman as text

=ROMAN (number, [form])

Number : Arabic numeral
[form] : [optional] a number specifying the type roman numeral you wish.
Let’s understand this function using it in an example.
Here we have some values which we will be providing to the function and to see what the function returns.
Use the formula:


A2 : arabic number which should be positive and less than 3999.
Here argument to the formula is taken as cell reference.
As you can see the formula returns the ROMAN numeral as text from the input arabic numeral representation
Now copy the formula in other cells using Ctrl + D shortcut key.
These are the results returned by the ROMAN function.
As you can see all the input arabic numerals gets converted to ROMAN as text.

Use ROMAN function with other function to get results.


  1. The function returns #VALUE! Error, if the argument to the function is negative numbers or text given in as cell reference.
  2. If the number is in decimal then excel truncates it to integer and then return the value
  3. The number should be positive and less than 3999.
  4. The ROMAN function does the opposite of the ARABIC function in excel.
  5. The form argument in the function returns the type of roman numeral you wish. There are few types of numeral you can select from:
Form Type
0 Classic (default)
1 More concise style
2 More concise style
3 More concise style
4 Simplified style
TRUE Classic style
FALSE Simplified style

Hope you understood how to use ROMAN function and referring cell in Excel. Explore more articles on Excel conversion functions here. Please feel free to state your query or feedback for the above article.

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