How to use the PMT function in Excel

In this article, we will learn How to use the PMT function in Excel.

What is this PMT function used to calculate a loan ?

Excel let’s a person find monthly installment on a loan amount using the function having principle amount or loan amount, interest rate per month and the period of payment.

PMT Function in Excel

The function calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.


=PMT (rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])

rate The interest rate per period.

per - The period for which the interest rate is calculated.

nper - The total number of payments.

pv - The present value, the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.

fv - [optional] The future value, or a cash balance you want after the last payment is made. Defaults to 0 (zero).

type -[optional] The timing of the payment, either at the beginning or end of the period. Numbers 0 or 1 represent the payment date. The number 0 represents payment at the end of the period, and the number 1 represents payment at the beginning of the period. The default (empty argument) is 0. The calculation is at the end of the period.

Example :

All of these might be confusing to understand. Let's understand how to use the function using an example. Consider a scenario, John has taken a loan of $100,000 from a bank at 6.5% per year interest in a 5 years period. He needs to find out his monthly payment to the bank paying his loan.

So he has the following details in Excel.

Use the formula in B6 cell


You must be wondering why Interest rate is divided by 12 as  Applying the formula in the cell.

John has to pay $1,956 per month. You must be wondering why this amount shown here is negative. The loan amount is positive which is credited to John. He has to pay that amount which is to be debited.

You can use minus sign(-) in the formula to get the result in positive sign(+)

Use the alternative formula for signs

=PMT(B2/12,C2, -A2)

Here are some observational notes using the PMT function in Excel


  1. The function returns #NUM! Error  when:
    1. The given rate value is less than or equal to -1.
    2. The given nper value is equal to 0.
  2. The function returns #VALUE! error when any of the arguments provided are non-numeric.
  3. When calculating monthly or quarterly payments, we need to convert annual interest rates or the number of periods to months or quarters.
  4. If we wish to find out the total amount that was paid for the duration of the loan, we need to multiply the PMT as calculated by nper.

Hope this article about How to use the PMT function in Excel is explanatory. Find more articles on calculating values and related Excel formulas here. If you liked our blogs, share it with your friends on Facebook. And also you can follow us on Twitter and Facebook. We would love to hear from you, do let us know how we can improve, complement or innovate our work and make it better for you. Write to us at

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