Excel let’s you perform any operations using the Excel functions and their formulas. These functions can have the arguments input as cell references.

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

DATE | Returns the date in excel date-time code | =DATE(year, month, day) |

DATEVALUE | Converts a date in the form of text to a number that represents date in excel date-time code | =DATEVALUE(date_text) |

DAY | Returns the day of the month, a number within range 1-31 | =DAY(serial_number) |

HOUR | Returns the hour, a number within range 0-23 | =HOUR(serial_number) |

MINUTE | Returns the minute, a number within range 0-59 | =MINUTE(serial_number) |

MONTH | Returns the month, a number within range 1-12 | =MONTH(serial_number) |

NOW | Returns the current date and time | =NOW() |

SECOND | Returns the Second, a number within range 0- 59 | =SECOND(serial_number) |

TIME | Returns the number of a particular time in excel time format | =TIME(hour,minute,second) |

TIMEVALUE | Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number | =TIMEVALUE(time_text) |

TODAY | Returns the current date in excel date format | =TODAY() |

DATEDIF | Returns the period between two dates | =DATEDIF (start_date, end_date, unit) |

DAYS | Returns the days between the two dates | =DAYS (end_date, start_date) |

DAYS360 | Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year(twelve 30-days month | =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,method) |

EDATE | Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date | =EDATE(start_date,months) |

EOMONTH | Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months | =EOMONTH(start_date,months) |

NETWORDAYS | Returns the elapsed days between two dates(excluding Saturday & Sunday) | =NETWORKDAYS(start_date,end_date,[holidays]) |

WEEKDAY | Returns a number(1-7) identifying the day of the week of a date | =WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type]) |

WEEKNUM | Returns the week number in the year | =WEEKNUM(serial_number,[return_type]) |

ISOWEEKNUM | Returns the ISO week number for a given date | =ISOWEEKNUM(date |

WORKDAY | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays | =WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays]) |

YEAR | Returns the year of a date | =YEAR(serial_number) |

YEARFRAC | Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date | =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,basis) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

AND | Checks all the logic arguments and returns True if all are True | =AND(logical1,logical2,…) |

OR | Checks all the logic arguments and returns False if all are False | =OR(logical1,logical2,…) |

XOR | Returns a logical “exclusive OR” of all arguments. | =XOR(logical1,logical2,…) |

FALSE | Returns the logical value FALSE | =FALSE() |

TRUE | Returns the logical value TRUE | =TRUE() |

NOT | Returns the opposite of the logic of its argument | =NOT(logical) |

IF | Checks the logic_test and returns one value if True and another value if False | =IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false]) |

IFERROR | Checks the logic_test and returns value if any error | =IFERROR(value, value_if_error) |

IFNA | Checks the logic_test and returns value if only #NA error occurs | =IFNA(value, value_if_error) |

IFS | Checks the multiple logic_tests. Same as using nested IF function | =IFS (test1, value1, [test2, value2], …) |

ISBLANK | Checks the cell and returns True if blank | =ISBLANK(value) |

ISERROR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error except #N/A else False | =ISERR(value) |

ISERR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error except #N/A else False | =ISERR(value) |

ISEVEN | Returns TRUE if the number is even | =ISEVEN(number) |

ISLOGICAL | Check if the value is a logical value | =ISLOGICAL(value) |

ISFORMULA | Check if the cell reference is a formula | =ISFORMULA(reference) |

ISNA | Checks if the value is the #N/A error | =ISNA(value) |

ISNONTEXT | Checks if the value is non-text | =ISNONTEXT(value) |

ISNUMBER | Checks of the value is a number | =ISNUMBER(value) |

ISODD | Returns TRUE if the number is odd | =ISODD(number) |

ISREF | Returns TRUE if the value is a reference | =ISREF(value) |

ISTEXT | Checks if the value is text | =ISTEXT(value) |

N | Converts non-number value to a number | =N(value) |

NA | Returns a #NA error | =NA() |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

CELL | Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of the first cell | =CELL(info_type, [reference]) |

INFO | Returns information about the current operating environment | =INFO(type_text) |

SHEET | Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet | =SHEET([value]) |

SHEETS | Returns the number of sheets in a reference | =SHEETS([reference]) |

T | Checks the value and returns true if text | =T(value) |

TYPE | Returns a number ( 1, 2, 4, 16, 64), number representing each data type | =TYPE(value) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

ABS | Just converts all negative numbers to positive | =ABS(number) |

AGGREGATE | Returns an aggregate in a list or database | =AGGREGATE(function_num,options,array,k) |

ARABIC | Converts a Roman numeral to Arabic | =ARABIC(text) |

ASIN | Returns the arcsine of a number | =ASIN(number) |

CEILING | Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance | =CEILING(number,significance) |

DECIMAL | Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number | =DECIMAL(number, radix) |

DEGREES | Converts all radians to degrees | =DEGREES(angle) |

EVEN | Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer | =EVEN(number) |

EXP | Returns e (Value of e = 2.71..) raised to the power of a given number |
=EXP(number) |

FACT | Returns the factorial of a number | =FACT(number) |

FACTDOUBLE | Returns the double factorial of a number | =FACTDOUBLE(number) |

FLOOR | Rounds a number down nearest multiple of significance | =FLOOR(number,significance) |

GCD | Returns the greatest common divisor | =GCD(number1,number2,…) |

INT | Rounds a number down to the nearest integer | =INT(number) |

LCM | Returns the least common multiple | =LCM(number1,number2,…) |

LN | Returns the natural logarithm of a number | =LN(number) |

LOG | Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base | =LOG(number,base) |

LOG10 | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number | =LOG10(number) |

MDETERM | Returns the matrix determinant of an array | =MDETERM(array) |

MINVERSE | Returns the matrix inverse of an array | =MINVERSE(array) |

MOD | Returns the most occuring value in a data set of values | =MOD(number, divisor) |

MROUND | Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple | =MROUND(number,multiple) |

MUNIT | Returns the unit matrix for the specified dimensions | =MUNIT(dimension) |

ODD | Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer | =ODD(number) |

PI | Returns the value of pi, 3.14159….upto to 15 digits | =PI() |

POWER | Returns the result of a number raised to a power | =POWER(number,power) |

PRODUCT | Multiplies its arguments, text & logic statements ignored | =PRODUCT(number 1, number 2,…) |

QUOTIENT | Returns the integer portion of a division | =QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator) |

RADIANS | Converts degrees to radians | =RADIANS(angle) |

RAND | Returns a random number range 0 number < 1 | =RAND() |

RANDBETWEEN | Returns a random number between the two numbers | =RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top) |

ROMAN | Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text | =ROMAN(number,form) |

ROUND | Rounds a number to a specified number of digits | =ROUND(number,num_digits) |

ROUNDDOWN | Rounds a number down, toward zero | =ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits) |

ROUNDUP | Rounds a number up, away from zero | =ROUNDUP(number,num_digits) |

SIGN | Checks the number, returns 1 if positive, o if negative and -1 if negative | =SIGN(number) |

SIN | Returns the sine of the given angle | =SIN(number) |

SINH | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number | =SINH(number) |

COS | Returns the cosine of a number | =COS(number) |

COSH | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number | =COSH(number) |

TAN | Returns the tangent of a number | =TAN(number) |

TANH | Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number | =TANH(number) |

SQRT | Returns a square root of a number | =SQRT(number) |

SUBTOTAL | Returns a subtotal in a list or database | =SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,…) |

SUM | Adds all the numbers in a range of cells. | =SUM(number1,number2,…) |

SUMIF | Adds the cells specified by a given condition or criteria | =SUMIF(range,criteria,[sum_range]) |

SUMIFS | Adds the cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria | =SUMIFS(sum_range,criteria_range,criteria,…) |

SUMPRODUCT | Returns the sum of the products of corresponding ranges or arrays | =SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,[array3],…) |

TRUNC | Truncates a number to an integer removing the decimal part of the number | =TRUNC(number,num_digits) |

ACOS | Returns the arccosine of a number | =ACOS(number) |

ACOSH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number | =ACOSH(number) |

ASIN | Returns the arcsine of a number | =ASIN(number) |

ASINH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number | =ASINH(number) |

ATAN | Returns the arctangent of a number | =ATAN(number) |

ATAN2 | Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates | =ATAN2(x_num,y_num) |

ATANH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number | =ATANH(number) |

BAHTTEXT | Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format | =BAHTTEXT(number) |

CUBEKPIMEMBER | Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization’s performance. | =CUBEKPIMEMBER(connection,kpi_name, kpi_property,caption) |

CUBEMEMBER | Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. | =CUBEMEMBER(connection, member_expression,caption) |

CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY | Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. | =CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connection, member_expression,property) |

CUBERANKEDMEMBER | Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students. | =CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connection, set_expression,rank,caption) |

CUBESET | Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. | =CUBESET(connection,set_expression, caption,sort_order,sort_by) |

CUBESETCOUNT | Returns the number of items in a set. | =CUBESETCOUNT(set) |

CUBEVALUE | Returns an aggregated value from a cube. | =CUBEVALUE(connection, member_expression1,…) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

DAVERAGE | Returns the average of the values in the range that match conditions you specify | =DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria) |

DCOUNT | Counts the cells containing numbers in database matching conditions you specify | =DCOUNT(database,field,criteria) |

DMAX | Returns the maximum value from database matching conditions you specify | =DMAX(database,field,criteria) |

DMIN | Returns the minimum value from database matching conditions you specify | =DMIN(database,field,criteria) |

DPRODUCT | Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database | =DPRODUCT(database,field,criteria) |

DSTEDEV | Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries | =DSTDEV(database,field,criteria) |

DSTDEVP | Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries | =DSTDEVP(database,field,criteria) |

DVAR | Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries | =DVAR(database,field,criteria) |

DVARP | Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries | =DVARP(database,field,criteria) |

DGET | Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria | =DGET(database,field,criteria) |

DSUM | Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria you specify | =DSUM(database,field,criteria) |

DCOUNTA | Returns the number of nonblank cells in the database that matches a specific condition | =DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

BIN2DEC | Converts a binary number to decimal | =BIN2DEC(number) |

BIN2HEX | Converts a binary number to hexadecimal | =BIN2HEX(number,places) |

BIN2OCT | Converts a binary number to octal | =BIN2OCT(number,places) |

CONVERT | Converts a number from one measurement system to another measurement | =CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit) |

COMPLEX | Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number | =COMPLEX(real_num,i_num,suffix) |

DEC2BIN | Converts a decimal number to binary | =DEC2BIN(number,places) |

DEC2HEX | Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal | =DEC2HEX(number,places) |

DEC2OCT | Converts a decimal number to octal | =DEC2OCT(number,places) |

HEX2BIN | Converts a hexadecimal number to binary | =HEX2BIN(number,places) |

HEX2DEC | Converts hexadecimal number to decimal | =HEX2DEC(number) |

HEX2OCT | Converts a hexadecimal number to octal | =HEX2OCT(number,places) |

IMABS | Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number | =IMABS(inumber) |

IMAGINARY | Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number | =IMAGINARY(inumber) |

IMARGUMENT | Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians | =IMARGUMENT(inumber) |

IMCONJUGATE | Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number | =IMCONJUGATE(inumber) |

IMCOS | Returns the cosine of a complex number | =IMCOS(inumber) |

IMDIV | Returns the quotient of two complex numbers | =IMDIV(inumber1,inumber2) |

IMEXP | Returns the exponential of a complex number | =IMEXP(inumber) |

IMLN | Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number | =IMLN(inumber) |

IMLOG10 | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number | =IMLOG10(inumber) |

IMLOG2 | Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number | =IMLOG2(inumber) |

IMPOWER | Returns a complex number raised to an integer power | =IMPOWER(inumber,number) |

IMPRODUCT | Returns the product of complex numbers | =IMPRODUCT(inumber1,inumber2,…) |

IMREAL | Returns the real coefficient of a complex number | =IMREAL(inumber) |

IMSIN | Returns the sine of a complex number | =IMSIN(inumber) |

IMSQRT | Returns the square root of a complex number | =IMSQRT(inumber) |

IMSUB | Returns the difference between two complex numbers | =IMSUB(inumber1,inumber2) |

IMSUM | Returns the sum of complex numbers | =IMSUM(inumber1,inumber2,…) |

OCT2BIN | Converts an octal number to binary | =OCT2BIN(number,places) |

OCT2DEC | Converts an octal number to decimal | =OCT2DEC(number) |

OCT2HEX | Converts an octal number to hexadecimal | =OCT2HEX(number,places) |

BITAND | Returns the bitwise ‘AND’ of two numbers | =BITAND(number1, number2) |

BITOR | Returns the bitwise ‘OR’ of two numbers | =BITOR(number1, number2) |

BITXOR | Returns the bitwise ‘Exclusive OR’ of two numbers | =BITXOR(number1, number2) |

BITLSHIFT | Returns a number shifted left by shift_amount bits | =BITLSHIFT(number, shift amount) |

BITRSHIFT | Returns a number shifted right by shift_amount bits | =BITRSHIFT(number, shift amount) |

DELTA | Checks the two values are equal or not | =DELTA(number1, [number2]) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

ACCRINT | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest | =ACCRINT(issue,first_interest, settlement,rate,par,frequency, basis,calc_method) |

ACCRINTM | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity | =ACCRINTM(issue,settlement, rate,par,basis) |

AMORDEGRC | Returns the prorated linear depreciation of an asset for each accounting period | =AMORDEGRC(cost,date_purchased, first_period,salvage,period, rate,[basis]) |

AMORLINC | Returns the prorated linear depreciation of an asset for each accounting period | =AMORLINC(cost,date_purchased, first_period,salvage, period,rate,basis) |

COUPDAYBS | Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date | =COUPDAYBS(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

COUPDAYS | Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date | =COUPDAYS(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

COUPDAYSNC | Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date | =COUPDAYSNC(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

COUPNCD | Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date | =COUPNCD(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

COUPNUM | Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date | =COUPNUM(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

COUPPCD | Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date | =COUPPCD(settlement,maturity, frequency,basis) |

CUMIPMT | Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods | =CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv, start_period,end_period,type) |

CUMPRINC | Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods | =CUMPRINC(rate,nper,pv, start_period,end_period,type) |

DB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method | =DB(cost,salvage,life, period,month) |

DDB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify | =DDB(cost,salvage,life, period,factor) |

DISC | Returns the discount rate for a security | =DISC(settlement,maturity, pr,redemption,basis) |

DOLLARDE | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number | =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction) |

DOLLARFR | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction | =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar,fraction) |

DURATION | Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments | =DURATION(settlement,maturity, coupon,yld,frequency,basis) |

EFFECT | Returns the effective annual interest rate | =EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery) |

FV | Returns the future value of an investment | =FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type) |

IPMT | Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period for an investment | =IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type) |

FVSCHEDULE | Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates | =FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule) |

INTRATE | Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security | =INTRATE(settlement,maturity, investment,redemption,basis) |

ISPMT | Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment | =ISPMT(rate,per,nper,pv) |

IRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows | =IRR(values,guess) |

MDURATION | Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 | =MDURATION(settlement,maturity, coupon,yld,frequency,basis) |

MIRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows, considering both debit and credit cash flow | =MIRR(values,finance_rate,reinvest_rate) |

NOMINAL | Returns the annual nominal interest rate | =NOMINAL(effect_rate,npery) |

NPER | Returns the number of periods for an investment at constant rate and fixed monthly amount | =NPER(rate,pmt,pv,fv,type) |

NPV | Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate and a series of future payments | =NPV(rate,value1,value2,…) |

PV | Returns the present value of an investment | =PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type) |

RATE | Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity | =RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv,type,guess) |

ODDFPRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period | =ODDFPRICE(settlement,maturity, issue,first_coupon,rate,yld, redemption,frequency,basis) |

ODDFYIELD | Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period | =ODDFYIELD(settlement,maturity, issue,first_coupon,rate,pr, redemption,frequency,basis) |

ODDLYIELD | Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period | =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity, last_interest,rate,pr, redemption,frequency,[basis]) |

ODDLYIELD | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period | =ODDLYIELD(settlement,maturity, last_interest,rate,pr, redemption,frequency,[basis]) |

PMT | Returns the periodic payment for an annuity | =PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type) |

PPMT | Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period | =PPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type) |

PRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest | =PRICE(settlement,maturity,rate, yld,redemption,frequency,basis) |

PRICEDISC | Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security | =PRICEDISC(settlement,maturity, discount, redemption, [basis]) |

PRICEMAT | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity | =PRICEMAT(settlement,maturity, issue,rate,yld,basis) |

RECEIVED | Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security | =RECEIVED(settlement,maturity, investment,discount,basis) |

RRI | Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment | =RRI(nper, pv, fv) |

SLN | Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period | =SLN(cost,salvage,life) |

SYD | Returns the sum-of-years’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period | =SYD(cost,salvage,life,per) |

TBILLEQ | Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill | =TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,discount) |

TBILLPRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill | =TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,discount) |

TBILLYIELD | Returns the yield for a Treasury bill | =TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr) |

VDB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method | =VDB(cost,salvage,life, start_period,end_period, factor,no_switch) |

XIRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic | =XIRR(values,dates,guess) |

XNPV | Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic | =XNPV(rate,values,dates) |

YIELD | Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest | =YIELD(settlement,maturity, rate,pr,redemption, frequency,basis) |

YIELDDISC | Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill | =YIELDDISC(settlement,maturity, pr,redemption,basis) |

YIELDMAT | Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity | =YIELDMAT(settlement,maturity, issue,rate,pr,basis) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

AVEDEV | Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean | =AVEDEV(number1,number2,…) |

AVERAGE | Returns the average(arithmetic mean) of its arguments | =AVERAGE(number1,number2,…) |

AVERAGEIF | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given condition or criteria | =AVERAGEIF(range,criteria,[average_range]) |

AVERAGEA | Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values | =AVERAGEA(value1,value2,…) |

AVERAGEIFS | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. | =AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range,criteria,…) |

COMBIN | Returns the number of combinations for a given number of values | =COMBIN(number,number_chosen) |

COUNT | Counts the number of cells in a range that contain numbers. | =COUNT(value1,value2,…) |

COUNTA | Count the number of non-empty cells in a range of cells. | =COUNTA(value1,value2,…) |

COUNTBLANK | Count the number of non-empty cells in a range of cells. | =COUNTBLANK(range) |

COUNTIF | Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given condition | =COUNTIF(range,criteria) |

COUNTIFS | Counts the number of cells that meet a specified set of conditions or criteria | =COUNTIFS(criteria_range,criteria,…) |

DEVSQ | Returns the exponential distribution | =EXPON.DIST(x,lambda,cumulative) |

FREQUENCY | Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array | =FREQUENCY(data_array,bins_array) |

GEOMEAN | Returns the geometric mean of the range of positive numeric values | =GEOMEAN(number1,number2,…) |

HARMEAN | Returns the harmonic mean | =HARMEAN(number1,number2,…) |

LARGE | Returns the k-th largest value in a data set | =LARGE(array,k) |

MIN | Returns the numerically smallest value, ignores logical values and text | =MIN(number1,number2,…) |

MAX | Returns the numerically largest value, ignores logical values and text | =MAX(number1,number2,…) |

MAXA | Returns the maximum value in a set of values, does not ignore text, and logical values | =MAXA(value1,value2,…) |

MINA | Returns the minimum value in a set of values, does not ignore text, and logical values | =MINA(value1,value2,…) |

MEDIAN | Returns the median of the set of given numbers | =MEDIAN(number1,number2,…) |

MODE | Returns the most occuring value in a data set of values | =MODE(number1,number2,…) |

PERCENTILE | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range | =PERCENTILE(array,k) |

PERCENTRANK | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set | =PERCENTRANK(array,x,significance) |

PERMUT | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects | =PERMUT(number,number_chosen) |

QUARTILE | Returns the quartile of a data set | =QUARTILE(array,quart) |

RANK | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers | =RANK(number,ref,order) |

SMALL | Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set | =SMALL(array,k) |

STANDARDIZE | Returns a normalized value | =STANDARDIZE(x,mean,standard_dev) |

STDEV | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample | =STDEV(number1,number2,…) |

STDEVA | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values | =STDEVA(value1,value2,…) |

STDEVP | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population | =STDEVP(number1,number2,…) |

STDEVPA | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values | =STDEVPA(value1,value2,…) |

TRIMMEAN | Returns the mean of the interior of a data set | =TRIMMEAN(array,percent) |

VAR | Estimates variance based on a sample | =VAR(number1,number2,…) |

VARA | Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values | =VARA(value1,value2,…) |

VARP | Calculates variance based on the entire population | =VARP(number1,number2,…) |

VARPA | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values | =VARPA(value1,value2,…) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

ADDRESS | Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet | =ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text]) |

AREAS | Returns the number of areas in a reference | =AREAS(reference) |

CHOOSE | Chooses a value or action to perform from a list of values, based on an index number | =CHOOSE(index_num,value1,value2,…) |

COLUMN | Returns the column number of a reference | =COLUMN([reference]) |

COLUMNS | Returns the number of columns in an array or reference | =COLUMNS(array) |

FORMULATEXT | Returns a formula as a string | =FORMULATEXT(reference) |

GETPIVOTDATA | Extracts data stored in a pivotTable | =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field,pivot_table,field,item,…) |

HLOOKUP | Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value from the corresponding column | =HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,[range_lookup]) |

HYPERLINK | Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document from the link | =HYPERLINK(link_location,friendly_name) |

INDEX | Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array | =INDEX(array,row_num,[column_num]) |

INDIRECT | Returns a reference indicated by a text value | =INDIRECT(ref_text,a1) |

LOOKUP | Looks up in the array and returns the value from the corresponding array | =LOOKUP(lookup_value, array,[result vector]) |

MATCH | Looks up for relative values in an array and returns the relative index of the match | =MATCH(lookup_value,lookup_array,[match_type]) |

MMULT | Returns the matrix product of two arrays | =MMULT(array1,array2) |

OFFSET | Returns a reference, traverses from a given reference | =OFFSET(reference,rows,cols,height,width) |

ROW | Returns the row number of a reference | =ROW([reference]) |

ROWS | Returns the number of rows in a reference or array | =ROWS(array) |

TRANSPOSE | Returns the transpose of an array (Rows to columns or vice versa) | =TRANSPOSE(array) |

VLOOKUP | Looks in the top column of an array and returns the value from the corresponding row | =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,[range_lookup]) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

CHAR | Returns the character specified by the code number used by your computer | =CHAR(number) |

CLEAN | Removes all non-printable characters from the text | =CLEAN(text) |

CODE | Returns a numeric code for the first character in the text string used by your computer | =CODE(text) |

CONCATENATE | Joins several text items into one text string. | =CONCATENATE(text1,text2,…) |

DOLLAR | Converts a number to text, using the dollar ($) currency format | =DOLLAR(number,decimals) |

EXACT | Checks two text strings, if same returns True else False | =EXACT(text1,text2) |

FIND | Returns the starting position, where two strings match (case-sensitive) | =FIND(find_text,within_text,start_num) |

LEFT | Returns the specified number of characters from the start of the text string | =LEFT(text,num_chars) |

LEN | Returns the number of characters in a text string | =LEN(text) |

LOWER | Converts all the text to Lower Case | =LOWER(text) |

MID | Returns the specified characters from a given position of the text | =MID(text,start_num,num_chars) |

PROPER | Converts all the text to proper case. only First letter capital | =PROPER(text) |

REPLACE | Replaces part of a text string with a different text string | =REPLACE(old_text,start_num,num_chars,new_text) |

RIGHT | Returns the specified number of characters from the start of the Right string | =RIGHT(text,num_chars) |

FIXED | Formats a number as text with a specified number of decimals | =FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas) |

TEXT | Converts a value to text in a specific number format | =TEXT(value,format_text) |

NUMBERVALUE | Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner | =NUMBERVALUE(text,[decimal_seperator],[group seperator]) |

REPT | Repeats text a given number of times | =REPT(text,number_times) |

SUBSTITUTE | Replaces existing text with new text in a text string | =SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,instance_num) |

SEARCH | Finds one text string within another string (not case-sensitive) | =SEARCH(find_text,within_text,start_num) |

TRIM | Removes all spaces from a text string except for single spaces between words | =TRIM(text) |

UPPER | Converts all the text to Upper Case | =UPPER(text) |

UNICHAR | Returns the unicode character of the number | =UNICHAR(number) |

UNICODE | Returns the number(code) corresponding to the first character of the text | =UNICODE(text) |

VALUE | Converts a text string to a number | =VALUE(text) |

FUNCTIONS |
DESCRIPTION |
SYNTAX |

NETWORKDAYS.INTL | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days | =NETWORKDAYS.INTL( start_date,end_date, [weekend],[holidays]) |

WORKDAY.INTL | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days | =WORKDAY.INTL( start_date,days,weekend, holidays) |

ERROR.TYPE | Returns a number corresponding to an error type | =ERROR.TYPE(error_val) |

CEILING.PRECISE | Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. | =CEILING.PRECISE( number,significance) |

FLOOR.PRECISE | Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. | =FLOOR.PRECISE( number,significance) |

ISO.CEILING | Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance | =ISO.CEILING( number,significance) |

MODE.MULT | Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data | =MODE.MULT(number1, number2,…) |

MODE.SNGL | Returns the most common value in a data set | =MODE.SNGL(number1, number2,…) |

RANK.AVG | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers | =RANK.AVG(number, ref,order) |

RANK.EQ | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers | =RANK.EQ(number, ref,order) |

ERF.PRECISE | Returns the error function | =ERF.PRECISE(X) |

ERFC.PRECISE | Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity | =ERFC.PRECISE(X) |

NORM.S.INV | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution | =NORM.S.INV( probability) |

BETA.DIST | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function | =BETA.DIST(x, alpha,beta, cumulative,A,B) |

BETA.INV | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution | =BETA.INV(probability, alpha,beta,A,B) |

BINOM.DIST | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability | =BINOM.DIST( number_s,trials, probability_s, cumulative) |

BINOM.INV | Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value | =BINOM.INV(trials, probability_s,alpha) |

CHISQ.DIST | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function | =CHISQ.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative) |

CHISQ.DIST.RT | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution | =CHISQ.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom) |

CHISQ.INV | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function | =CHISQ.INV( probability, deg_freedom) |

CHISQ.INV.RT | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution | =CHISQ.INV.RT( probability, deg_freedom) |

CHISQ.TEST | Returns the test for independence | =CHISQ.TEST( actual_range, expected_range) |

CONFIDENCE.NORM | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean | =CONFIDENCE.NORM( alpha, standard_dev,size) |

CONFIDENCE.T | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student’s t distribution | =CONFIDENCE.T( alpha, standard_dev,size) |

COVARIANCE.P | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations | =COVARIANCE.P( array1,array2) |

COVARIANCE.S | Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets | =COVARIANCE.S( array1,array2) |

DEVSQ | Returns the exponential distribution | =EXPON.DIST(x,lambda, cumulative) |

F.DIST | Returns the F probability distribution | =F.DIST(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2, cumulative) |

F.DIST.RT | Returns the F probability distribution | =F.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) |

F.INV | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution | =F.INV(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) |

F.INV.RT | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution | =F.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) |

F.TEST | Returns the result of an F-test | =F.TEST(array1,array2) |

GAMMA.DIST | Returns the gamma distribution | =GAMMA.DIST(x, alpha,beta, cumulative) |

GAMMA.INV | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution | =GAMMA.INV( probability, alpha,beta) |

GAMMALN.PRECISE | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x) | =GAMMALN.PRECISE(x) |

HYPGEOM.DIST | Returns the hypergeometric distribution | =HYPGEOM.DIST( sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_pop, cumulative) |

LOGNORM.DIST | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution | =LOGNORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative) |

LOGNORM.INV | Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution | =LOGNORM.INV( probability, mean,standard_dev) |

NEGBINOM.DIST | Returns the negative binomial distribution | =NEGBINOM.DIST( number_f,number_s, probability_s, cumulative) |

NORM.DIST | Returns the normal cumulative distribution | =NORM.DIST(x, mean,standard_dev, cumulative) |

NORM.INV | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution | =NORM.INV(probability, mean,standard_dev) |

NORM.S.DIST | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution | =NORM.S.DIST(z, cumulative) |

PERCENTILE.EXC | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive | =PERCENTILE.EXC (array,k) |

PERCENTILE.INC | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range | =PERCENTILE.INC (array,k) |

PERCENTRANK.EXC | =PERCENTRANK.EXC(array,x,significance) Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set | =PERCENTRANK.EXC (array,x,significance) |

PERCENTRANK.INC | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set | =PERCENTRANK.INC( array,x, significance) |

POISSON.DIST | Returns the Poisson distribution | =POISSON.DIST(x, mean,cumulative) |

QUARTILE.EXC | Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive | =QUARTILE.EXC( array,quart) |

QUARTILE.INC | Returns the quartile of a data set | =QUARTILE.INC( array,quart) |

STDEV.P | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population | =STDEV.P( number1,number2,…) |

STDEV.S | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample | =STDEV.S( number1,number2,…) |

T.DIST | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution | =T.DIST(x,deg_freedom, cumulative) |

T.DIST.2T | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution | =T.DIST.2T(x, deg_freedom) |

T.DIST.RT | Returns the Student’s t-distribution | =T.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom) |

T.INV | Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom | =T.INV(probability, deg_freedom) |

T.INV.2T | Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution | T.INV.2T(probability, deg_freedom) |

T.TEST | Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test | T.TEST(array1,array2, tails,type) |

VAR.P | Calculates variance based on the entire population | =VAR.P(number1, number2,…) |

VAR.S | =VAR.S(number1,number2,…)Estimates variance based on a sample | =VAR.S(number1, number2,…) |

WEIBULL.DIST | Returns the Weibull distribution | =WEIBULL.DIST(x,alpha, beta,cumulative) |

Z.TEST | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test | =Z.TEST(array,x,sigma) |

Let’s understand how to use cell references in Excel and then we will learn about all Excel functions.

Here we will use direct numbers to get the result

Use the formula in the cell

=2+2 |

Result: 4

Every function must start with equals to sign (=). It tells the excel that the user needs to access Functions in the sheet.

Now see the same operation between two values using cell reference.

Whenever you will using cell reference. You just need to use the equals to(=) sign and just click the cell where your values are.

Excel helps you to differentiate between the 2 cell references with the different colour format as shown in the above snapshot.

Now press Enter and you will have your result.

Now you can use this output into the input of another function.

If the values are text, then we need to take it as strings and apply the functions appropriately.

Here string “A” is joined with string “B” using **& **operator to get the new text “AB” in the cell.

Now there’s one more thing. Numbers represent so many values in a text as Date, Time and currency. So Sometimes you need to change the format cell type to required field type using Format cell option.

Use the format cell option shown below or **Ctrl + 1 **shortcut keyboard key that will open a full Format cell dialog box

Changing the format you will get

Here are all Excel Functions with their Description and Syntax.

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